italy is known as the land of

In the early 1990s the Italian party system underwent a radical transformation, and the political centre collapsed, leaving a right-left polarization of the party spectrum that threw the north-south divide into sharper contrast and gave rise to such political leaders as media magnate Silvio Berlusconi. Finally, De Gasperi supervised the transition to a Republic following the abdication of Vittorio Emanuele III on 9 May 1946, the one-month-long reign of his son Umberto II ("King of May") and the Constitutional Referendum that abolished the monarchy; De Gasperi briefly became acting Head of State as well as Prime Minister on 18 June 1946, but ceded the former role to Provisional President Enrico de Nicola ten days later. In 476, the last Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Odoacer; for a few years Italy stayed united under the rule of Odoacer, but soon after it was divided between several barbarian kingdoms, and did not reunite under a single ruler until thirteen centuries later. The majestic delta of the Po River, extending from Rimini to Monfalcone, is riddled with the lagoons that are familiar to visitors to Venice. Italy's political arena was sharply divided between broad camps of left and right which created frequent deadlock and attempts to preserve governments, which led to instances such as conservative Prime Minister Marco Minghetti enacting economic reforms to appease the opposition such as the nationalization of railways. Most of the other islands are quite small in comparison. Only 11,000 more were produced during the next three years, far fewer than any of the other major belligerents. The extensions on the Adriatic coast are simpler, comprising only the small promontory of Mount Conero, the higher peninsula of Gargano (3,465 feet [1,056 metres]), and the Salentina Peninsula in Puglia. The Roman Empire fell in the 5th century ce after a succession of barbarian invasions through which Huns, Lombards, Ostrogoths, and Franks—mostly previous subjects of Rome—seized portions of Italy. Phenomena that are related to volcanism include thermal springs in the Euganei Hills, vulcanelli (mud springs) at Viterbo, and emissions of gas at Pozzuoli. In June 1945 Bonomi was in turn replaced by Ferruccio Parri, who in turn gave way to Alcide de Gasperi on 4 December 1945. [23][24] The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms provoked a fusion between Roman and Greek cultures and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. The intellectual and moral faculties of humankind have found a welcome home in Italy, one of the world’s most important centres of religion, visual arts, literature, music, philosophy, culinary arts, and sciences. A warrior and mariner people, the ancient Sardinians held flourishing trades with the other Mediterranean peoples. The historical Etruscans had achieved a form of state with remnants of chiefdom and tribal forms. In face of the threat of a French hegemony over much of Europe, a Grand Alliance between Austria, England, the Dutch Republic and other minor powers (within which the Duchy of Savoy) was signed in The Hague. This section of the plain is terraced and unproductive, although the rainfall is high. Poets like Vergil, Horace, Ovid and Rufus developed a rich literature, and were close friends of Augustus. During the Copper Age, Indoeuropean people migrated to Italy. After Mazzini's release in 1831, he went to Marseille, where he organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia (Young Italy). When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 beginning World War II, Mussolini chose to stay non-belligerent, although he declared his support for Hitler. Rao, Anna Maria. Historian R.J.B. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, other national monarchs he had installed tried to keep their thrones by feeding those nationalistic sentiments, setting the stage for the revolutions to come. [67] The plague of 1656 killed up to 43% of the population of the Kingdom of Naples. [73] Defeated at Paris on 6 April 1814, Napoleon was compelled to renounce his throne and sent into exile on Elba. Hitler had to intervene with the sending of the Afrika Korps of General Erwin Rommel, that was the mainstay in the North African campaign. Area city, 70 square miles (182 square km); province, 765 square miles (1,980 square km). Thus, many Italians, particularly older ones, are inclined to think of themselves as belonging to families, then neighbourhoods, then towns or cities, then regions, and then, last, as members of a nation. [93] In 1913, male universal suffrage was allowed. The works of this literary age lasted through Roman times, and are classics. Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political idea called Trasformismo (transformism). Sicily is the largest Italian island at 10,000 square miles. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for 1921 elections. The population density is about 200 people per square kilometer. At the bottom of the country, in the Mediterranean Sea, lie the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Fiat managed to remain at the cutting edge of car manufacturing technology, enabling it to expand production, foreign sales, and profits.[135]. The Socialist party (PSI), led by Bettino Craxi, became more and more critical of the communists and of the Soviet Union; Craxi himself pushed in favour of US president Ronald Reagan's positioning of Pershing II missiles in Italy. [97], When the Treaty of London was announced in May 1915, there was an uproar from antiwar elements. After initial success the war took a turn for the worse and the Kingdom of Sardinia lost. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Many Italian generals and officers earned our respect as men as well as soldiers". Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated after calling for a nullification of the vote because of the irregularities. He was murdered in 44 BCE, in the Ides of March by the Liberatores. Italy: land of painters to popes, pasta to polenta, medieval castles to ice-capped mountains. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily lasted until 1194 when Sicily was claimed by the German Hohenstaufen Dynasty. Augustus also continued the shifts on the calendar promoted by Caesar, and the month of August is named after him. Although the Italian birth rate is low, the population is increasing due to immigrants entering the country. The southern Apennines are also tectonically unstable, with several active volcanoes, including Vesuvius, which from time to time belches ash and steam into the air above Naples and its island-strewn bay. Also, despite Rommel's advances, the campaign in North Africa began to fail in late 1942. It remains a strong economic, cultural, military and political factor in the 21st century.[3][4]. Venice proved to be a more powerful adversary, and with the decline of Genoese power during the 15th century Venice became pre-eminent on the seas. In 1820, Spaniards successfully revolted over disputes about their Constitution, which influenced the development of a similar movement in Italy. Italy was a large, poor country whose political system was chaotic, its finances were heavily strained, and its army was very poorly prepared. They are composed mainly of limestone and sedimentary rocks. Through it runs the Po River and all its tributaries and the Reno, Adige, Piave, and Tagliamento rivers. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of the state (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. Mussolini was a World War I veteran, who had worked for the Socialist newspapers before the war but then broke off due to his pro-war stance and established his new Nationalist organization, Fasci di Combattimento. However, on the other hand, transportation was difficult, soil fertility was low with extensive erosion, deforestation was severe, many businesses could stay open only because of high protective tariffs, large estates were often poorly managed, most peasants had only very small plots, and there was chronic unemployment and high crime rates. [152][153] With more than 35,000 confirmed victims, Italy was one of the countries with the highest total number of deaths in the worldwide coronavirus pandemic. Canada – The Great White North 14. Alessandra Diazzi and Alvise Sforza Tarabochia, Richard Drake, "Italy in the 1960s: A Legacy of Terrorism and Liberation. The assassination of the leader of the Christian Democracy (DC), Aldo Moro, led to the end of a "historic compromise" between the DC and the Communist Party (PCI). Industrial wages kept pace but not wages for farm workers. [68] Historians believe the dramatic reduction in Italian cities population (and, thus, in economic activity) contributed to Italy's downfall as a major commercial and political centre. A third agreement paid the Vatican 1750 million lira (about $100 million) for the seizures of church property since 1860. There are two mountain systems: the scenic Alps, parts of which lie within the neighbouring countries of France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia; and the Apennines, which form the spine of the entire peninsula and of the island of Sicily. Lake Garda is the largest Italian lake, with a distance around the lake of 158 kilometers, or about 100 miles. During the Quaternary Ice Age, several lakes were formed in what is now Italy, and some are quite deep. The works of ancient Greek and Hellenistic writers (such as Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and Ptolemy) and Muslim scientists were imported into the Christian world, providing new intellectual material for European scholars. Others, such as the Lecce Plain in Puglia, flank the sea on rocky plateaus about 65 to 100 feet (20 to 30 metres) high, formed of ancient land leveled by the sea and subsequently uplifted. The elections in 2006 returned Prodi in government, leading an all-encompassing centre-left coalition of 11 parties (The Union). [1][2] Rome was founded as a Kingdom in 753 BC and became a Republic in 509 BC, when the monarchy was overthrown in favor of a government of the Senate and the People. Italy includes several islands. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Berlusconi participated in the US-led multinational coalition in Iraq. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leone Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. Other well known of these subalpine lakes are Lake Maggiore (212.5 km2 or 82 sq mi), whose most northerly section is part of Switzerland, Como (146 km2 or 56 sq mi), Orta, Lugano, Iseo, Idro. Tuscan architecture and painting soon became a model for all the city-states of northern and central Italy, as the Tuscan variety of Italian language came to predominate throughout the region, especially in literature. Professor of Early Medieval History, University of Birmingham, England. In 1805, he formed the Kingdom of Italy, with himself as king and his stepson as viceroy. El Alamein was a battle that was lost with great honour, facing up to overwhelmingly superior firepower with poor weapons but with great spirit and capacity to resist and to hold up high the honour of Italy". The seacoasts are quite varied. Public appearances and propaganda constantly portrayed the closeness of Mussolini and Hitler and the similarities between Italian Fascism and German National Socialism. The succeeding centre-left government, including most of the same parties, was headed by Giuliano Amato (social-democratic), who previously served as Prime Minister in 1992–93, from April 2000 until June 2001. [100][101], Before the war the government had ignored labor issues, but now it had to intervene to mobilize war production. From 1992 to 1997, Italy faced significant challenges as voters disenchanted with political paralysis, massive government debt, extensive corruption, and organized crime's considerable influence collectively called the political system Tangentopoli.

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